PRIVATE - AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS

List the required VFR day and night equipment?
The VFR day equipment list includes a tachometer, an oil pressure indicator, a manifold pressure indicator, an airspeed indicator, a temperature indicator for each liquid cooled engine, an oil temperature indicator, a fuel quantity indicator, floatation gear if the flight is beyond gliding distance to shore, a landing gear position indicator, an altimeter, an anti collision light (for planes manufactured after March 11th 1996), a magnetic compass, an ELT, and seat belts. As for the VFR night requirements, you will need fuses, a landing light (hire only), an anti collision light, position lights, and an adequate source of power. The acronyms for these requirements are TOMATOFFLAAMES for day, and FLAPS for night.

Is there any equipment not on this list that could be required, if so where would this equipment be located?
Yes, the aircraft manufacture also requires an extensive list of equipment. This information is in the operating handbook for the aircraft in section 6.

Can you operate an aircraft with inoperative equipment listed as required in the previous questions?
Yes you may, as long as you get a special flight permit from the FSDO.

Can you operate an aircraft with inoperative equipment not listed as required in the previous questions?
Yes you may, but you must remove the item, or label it inoperative and deactivate it. If deactivating requires maintenance, the work must be recorded in the aircraft's logbook. Also consider that if operating without this component could cause a hazard, then you are prohibited from operating the aircraft.

How long can an instrument or piece of equipment remain inoperative?
The duration of the inoperative state is allowed until the next scheduled inspection.

When checking the squawks you notice that the previous pilot reported that the turn coordinator and the compass were inoperative. What would you need to do in order to depart legally?
Since the turn coordinator is not required by the FAA or the manufacture, you would need to deactivate and label the instrument inoperative, or remove it. As for the compass, this instrument is required for VFR day flight so for you to depart you must obtain a special flight permit from the FSDO.

If the VSI fails during your run up, can you depart? Could this lead to a bigger problem?
You may not depart until you remove the VSI, or deactivate it and label it inoperative. Consider that the VSI is connected to the pitot static system, and the problem could be related to that system and not just the VSI. Also remember that the altimeter and airspeed indicator are required instruments. 

Prior to any flight you must check that all required maintenance inspections have been complied with. What are these inspections?
There are three logbooks that must be reviewed. First is the airframe logbook which will have the annual inspection, the 100 hour inspection, the transponder inspection (every 24 months), the pitot static inspection (every 24 months), the ELT inspection (every 12 months), and the completed airworthiness directives in it. The two other logbooks are for the propeller and the engine. Both of these logbooks will each have a 100 hour inspection in them.

What is the difference between the 100 hour and annual inspection?
The differences include the person who conducts the inspection, and which planes need the 100 hour inspection. The 100 hour can be done by any A&P, whereas the annual inspection must be completed by an A&P with an Inspector Authorization rating. As for which planes require the 100 hour inspection, the 100 hour inspection is only required for aircraft which are used for hire.

If the annual was done on January 1st 2000, when is the next annual due by?
January 31st 2001.

Can you overfly the 100 hour inspection?
Yes, you may fly up to 10 hours beyond the 100 hour period only if you are flying to the point of inspection. The next 100 hour will need to be completed 100 hours after the previous 100 hour inspection was scheduled to be completed. Also consider that you may not overfly airworthiness directives which are typically done at the same time the 100 hour is due.

What does the ELT inspection consist of?
When the ELT inspection is conducted maintenance personnel will check four items. These items consist of ELT security, corrosion, signal transmission, and crash sensor operation.

How will you determine when the ELT battery needs to be replaced?
You must ensure the ELT battery has been recharged or replaced after one hour of total use, or at the battery's half life date. The half life date is a sticker located on the battery and in the aircraft maintenance logbook.

During your run-up, you want to check the ELT. How would you do so?
You may test the ELT via the activation switch in the cabin. After turning it on, you would tune to 121.5 to hear the tone. This test may only be done in the first 5 minutes of the hour for a maximum of 3 sweeps.

What are airworthiness directives?
Airworthiness directives are issued when the parts originally manufactured for the aircraft impose a safety risk. When an airworthiness directive is issued, the owner will be sent a letter informing them that they must replace or more frequently inspect a certain aircraft part.

What is considered preventative maintenance?
Preventative maintenance is maintenance that can be conducted by someone holding a private pilot, or greater certificate. Examples of preventative maintenance include oil changes, tire changes, and refilling air struts. Each performed action must be written in the maintenance logbooks.